Glass tubes are used in many different industries from medical storage vials, to electric bulb housing, and beyond. Many factories focus exclusively on fabricating glass tubes rather than creating a variety of glass products. Focusing on one specific task can be cost effective because it allows a factory to use equipment just for the creation of tubes and it does not need to stock other glass fabricating equipment.
There is an array of methods used to shape form ceramic powders including injection molding, extrusion, hot isostatic pressing, slip casting, gel casting and tape casting. Injection molding is known to form many plastic parts found in the average household and extrusion can be used to make a ceramic rod used for building facade. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is a forming method that can be used to form both metallic and non-metallic materials into a variety of different products. HIP increases the density of ceramic materials and can reduce the porosity of metals.
There are various types of gluing agents available on the market each with their own distinct attributes which are ideal for different applications. Water based adhesives have become very popular due to a number of their benefits. Traditionally solvent based adhesives have a greater shear and peel strength compared to water based adhesives, however there have been some recent breakthroughs in the water based field. These innovations have not only improved the strength of water based adhesives but they also enhanced the speed in which the glue will adhere to materials. These water based adhesives allow the rubber to have a greater bonding strength to metal’s porous surface resulting in deeper penetration. This stronger bond is ideal for applications where strong bonds are needed but also this advantage allows for greater resistance and flexibility to cold and heat.
When asked about the mineral graphite, one image likely comes to mind: a pencil. This soft, dark grey, greasy material, also called black lead and plumbago, has been used to jot down notes and draw pictures for hundreds of years. Its name is even derived from the Latin term for ‘to draw/write.’ Graphite is only found in a handful of places around the world, including Africa, the British Isles and a couple of U.S. states-including my home state of Michigan. There are 3 main types of natural graphite that are all found in different types of ore deposit. Crystalline graphite is flat with hexagonal edges, amorphous graphite is very thin and flakey, and lump graphite is found in veins of fractures underground. The first pencil was composed of sticks of graphite tied together with string. As you can imagine, this early writing utensil wasn’t exactly user friendly, but it could easily be erased with rubber. It wasn’t until much later that the modern pencil-the wooden kind with a pink eraser top that we use today-became popular.