Everything today seems to need different amounts of energy to be powered. Electric razors use very low amounts, while many factories require incredibly large amounts of power. These constant fluctuations can have dangerous effects. If the power isn’t high enough, the product simply won’t work. However, if the level is too high short-circuiting could occur, equipment or fuses could be blown and fires could even result. Transformers are designed to change the voltage levels of electric currents. They are able to either increase or decrease them, based on the need of the product or appliance. Step up transformers do the former, while step down transformers are able to do the latter. These two types of transformers go hand in hand, providing opposite but needed functions in the line of electricity. Step converters transfer electrical energy through two coil stages. In step down the first coil stage has more windings, and the second stage has fewer. In step up the first coil stage has fewer windings and the second stage has more. Both transformers can be used for large or small tasks, ranging from power plants to electronic equipment.
Step down converters are often used in the power plant setting to slowly reduce the voltage levels to an appropriate amount as they travel from the plant to homes and businesses. Step up transformers are intended for the opposite function. In general, electricity loses energy as it travels down the power lines. If the energy is of higher voltage however, it will lose energy less quickly than it would if it was at a lower voltage. For this reason power plants will increase the voltage levels before the generated energy leaves the plant. This gives the current enough power to travel the long distance from generator to buildings. Once it arrives step down converters can be used to reduce the power to a suitable level to prevent disaster.